... After his father’s death in his early teen, he was given the responsibility of his 2 brothers and mother during a traditional Zartosht ceremony in holy Odlaq (Fire-temple), which used to involve a glass of Azeri wine and wearing a purple ribbon around body. After verifying this, Afšīn sent a large force under Abū Saʿīd Moḥammad b. Yūsof to capture Bābak. and learned to play the tanbūr (drum or mandolin). 135, 138, 175-76) was informed and received Bābak hospitably. 13, 1341 Š./1962, n.s., pts. G. Sadighi, Les mouvements religieux iraniens au IIe et au IIIe siècle de l’hégire, Paris, 1938, pp. Bābak Fort or Babak Castle (Persian: دژ بابک or قلعه بابک Azerbaijani language: بابک قلعه سي), also known as the Immortal Castle or Republic Castle, is a large citadel and National Symbol of Iranians on the top of a mountain in the Arasbaran forests, which is located 6 km southwest of Kalibar City in northwestern Iran. Abu’l-Maʿālī Moḥammad b. BĀBAK ḴORRAMĪ (d. Ṣafar, 223/January, 838), leader of the Ḵorramdīnī or Ḵorramī uprising in Azerbaijan in the early 3rd/9th century which engaged the forces of the caliph for twenty years before it was crushed in 222/837. Access is challenging and … The name Bābak is found in all the sources, but Masʿūdī also says that “Bābak’s name was Ḥasan” (Morūj VII, p. 130, ed. I do not know what will happen. A band of mounted Ḵorramī led by a certain Moʿāwīa broke into one sector, intending to surprise Abū Saʿīd Moḥammad with a night attack, but Abū Saʿīd Moḥammad and his soldiers got word and blocked Moʿāwīa’s way; in the ensuing fight some Ḵorramīs were killed, others were captured, and the skulls and the prisoners were sent to Baghdad. 5). Our information about Bābak and his revolt comes almost entirely from adversaries. One of us may be caught and the other may survive. However, it was then renamed in honor of the medieval Persian revolutionary leader Babak Khorramdin who rebelled against the Abbasids. babak is the arabicised form of the Iranian name Pāpak. When he had grown up he went to Tabrīz, where he spent two years in the service of Moḥammad b. Rawwād Azdī before returning at the age of eighteen to his home at Belālābād. Most of them, including Afšīn who was one of their number, supported the caliph’s action against Bābak. 97-117). Babak Khorramdin the national hero of Iran who sacrificed his life for his country. ʿA Šāljī, 4 vols., Beirut, 1971-72, I, pp. Bābak, losing hope, came out to meet him and requested a safe-conduct from the caliph. Bābakī; Bondārī in Houtsma, Recueil, p. 124); and even in the Mongol period. The year of this great man’s death is January 17th. Before Afšīn’s departure, al-Moʿtaṣem had sent Abū Saʿīd Moḥammad b. Yūsof Marvazī to Ardabīl with instructions to rebuild the forts between Zanjān and Ardabīl which Bābak had demolished and to make the roads safe by posting guards. Parvīz, “Ḵorramdīnān wa qīām-e Bābak barā-ye eḥyā-ye esteqlāl-e Īrān,” Barrasīhā- ye tārīḵī 1, 1345 Š./1966, pp. Eqbāl, Tehran, 1313 Š./1934, p. 184. Babak Khorramdin AES-256 4096-bit (pseudonym) is a digital rights activist in Iran who told us his story. On arriving in Azerbaijan, Afšīn camped at a place on the Ardabīl road called Barzand at a distance of 15 parasangs from Ardabīl (Eṣṭaḵrī, p. 192; Moqaddasī, pp. The brewing revolution found a leader in Babak Khorramdin, a zealous follower of the Zoroastrian prophet Mazdak. Responsible for the suppression of the rebellion of Babak Khorramdin and for his battlefield victory over the Byzantine emperor Theophilos during the Amorium campaign. Iranian Azarbaijanis gather at Babak Castle during the first weekend in July for the annual commemoration of Babak Khorramdin. ... but after Ma'mun's sudden death in August 833 the campaign was abandoned by his successor al … The brewing revolution found a leader in Babak Khorramdin, a zealous follower of the Zoroastrian prophet Mazdak. BĀBAK ḴORRAMI. There are several paths to the castle, though the normal route soars stairs behind the seasonal Babak … The remains consisting of fortifications and a large building rest on a mountaintop 2,300-2,600 m above sea level, surrounded on all sides by ravines 400-600 m deep. In 209/824-25 al-Maʾmūn chose Zorayq b. Babak Castle. Babak's Early Life Merdās is the name of Żaḥḥāk’s father in Ferdowsī’s Šāh-nāma, probably meaning “man-eater” (mard-ās; see R. Roth, “Die Sage von Dschemschid,” ZDMG 4, 1850, pp. 6-42. Access is challenging and involves an arduous uphill walk that takes one to two hours. I have been known as the commander. Ṭabarī (III, p. 1171; cf. This general fought Bābak in several battles but without success. For those of you unfamiliar, Babak Khorramdin was the leader of a failed Iranian rebellion against Arab Muslim rule from 816 to 837. The fullest account of Bābak’s career comes from a … The figures given for the strength of Bābak’s army, such as 100,000 men (Abu’l-Maʿālī), 200,000 (Masʿūdī, Tanbīh, p. 323), or innumerable (Tabṣerat al-ʿawāmm, p. 184; Baḡdādī, p. 267) are doubtless highly exaggerated but at least indicate that it was large. The only access is by a very narrow track through gorges, up steep slopes, and across patches of dense forest. A Zoroastrian son of northwest Iran’s Azerbaijan region, Babak rose to head a movement at once political and religious rooted in cultural preservation against the Arab-dominated caliphate. Jāvīdān then sent Bābak to buy food, wine, and fodder. He also spent a month at Ardabīl gathering knowledge of the topography and tracks from informants and spies. S. J. Torābī Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Āṯār-e bāstānī-e Āḏarbāyjān II, Tehran, 2535 = 1355 Š./1957, pp. 466-71. 472-75). 447-48). In 838, the Iranian hero Babak Khorramdin had his hands and feet cut off by the Abbasid Caliphate and was then gibbeted alive while sewn into a cow's skin with the horns at ear level to crush his head gradually as the skin dried out. 838: Babak Khorramdin. 1229-30; Masʿūdī, Morūj, ed. Two verses of Moḥammad b. Babak began his career as a guerrilla fighter, launching lightning raids to seize isolated mountain fortresses, including his famously impenetrable castle of Ghaleye Babak. tr. There are several paths to the castle, though the normal route soars stairs behind the seasonal Babak … There are several paths to the castle, though the normal route soars stairs behind the seasonal Babak … From the statements of Ṭabarī (s.a. 214/829), Yaʿqūbī, and others it appears that al-Maʾmūn then either appointed ʿAbd-Allāh b. Ṭāher to the governorship of Jebāl, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, or gave him the choice between this and the governorship of Khorasan. The caliph regularly sent him instructions on tactics and precautions, and gave him every encouragement. His father died from wounds suffered in a fight during a journey to the Sabalan district when Babak was in his teens and the responsibility of his two brothers and mother fell on his shoulders. In the subsequent battle near Hamadān several thousand (60,000 in Ṭabarī and Ebn al-Aṯīr) Ḵorramīs were killed, but a large number escaped to Byzantine territory, whence they came back later to resume their fight (Ṭabarī, III, p. 1165; Ebn al-Aṯīr, VI, p. 441; Sīāsat-nāma, pp. 1177, 1205) and Ebn al-Aṯīr (s.a. 220/835 and 222/837) about Ḵorramī merry-making and wine drinking even in wartime confirm one of the sect’s reputed characteristics (see Amoretti, p. 517), but their tales of Bābak’s promiscuity and abduction of pretty Armenian girls seem inconsistent with another statement of Ṭabarī (III, p. 1227) that the women wept when they saw Bābak captive in Afšīn’s camp. 503-18. On one occasion al-Moʿtaṣem dispatched Jaʿfar Dīnār known as Ḵayyāṭ (the Tailor), who had been a senior general in al-Maʾmūn’s reign, and Aytāḵ the Turk, a slave-soldier who superintended the caliphal kitchen, with reinforcements and money for Afšīn and also several ass-loads of iron spikes to be strewn around the camp as a precaution against night raids. ), or whether it was subsequently invented to argue a link between Abū Moslem’s and Bābak’s revolts or to explain the Ḵorramī veneration for Abū Moslem (cf. Where is Babak Fort? The fort is named after Babak Khorramdin, an Iranian warlord who managed to resist Arab invaders until his death in 838 CE. Ebn Ḵaldūn, Ketāb al-ʿebar, Būlāq, 1284/1867, III, pp. This article is available in print.Vol. Babak Khorramdin, an Iranian revolutionary, he did not care what would happen to him, he would die for his country. Through the rituals, the spirits of the martyrs are embodied and the bodies of the participants are spiritualized. The coupling of his mother’s name Māhrū “Belle” with the description “one-eyed” also looks like a sneer. ... After his father’s death in his early teen, he was given the responsibility of his 2 brothers and mother during a traditional Zartosht ceremony in holy Odlaq (Fire-temple), which used to involve a glass of Azeri wine and wearing a purple ribbon around body. V. Minorsky, Cairo, 1955, p. 6; for further details see Baḏḏ). All considered, it may be said that Bābak’s motives and actions were anti-caliphal, anti-Arab, and to that extent anti-Muslim (Ṭabarī, III, p. 1226; Sadighi, pp. Banu Khorramdin or Bānu Xorramdin (??? There is no means of knowing whether the kinship with Abū Moslem, considered probable by Dīnavarī, was a fact or a pretense designed by Bābak (as by other rebel leaders) to gain support among people who cherished Abū Moslem’s memory (Ḡ.-Ḥ. 2, 3, and Sadighi, pp. When Bābak came back and spoke to Jāvīdān, he impressed Jāvīdān with his shrewdness despite his lack of fluency of speech. Bābak incited his followers to hate the Arabs and rise in rebellion against the caliphal regime. On the one hand the stories about ʿAbd-Allāh and Maṭar may imply that Bābak’s father had an illicit relationship with this woman, but on the other hand Dīnavarī (p. 397) asserts: “What seems to us to be true and proven is that Bābak was a son of Moṭahhar, the son of Abū Moslem’s daughter Fāṭema, and that the Fāṭemīya group of the Ḵorramīs took their name from this Fāṭema, not from Fāṭema the daughter of God’s Prophet.” In Masʿūdī’s Morūj (ed. It must have been then that he joined the Ḵorramīs. All the accounts of Bābak are biased, some begin with curses on him (e.g. To deal with them al-Moʿtaṣem sent a force under Esḥāq b. Ebrāhīm b. Moṣʿab, who was also made governor of Jebāl. The fort, which state media say originated in the Sassanid era (224-651), is named after Babak Khorramdin, a Persian warlord who fought against Arab invaders until his death in 838. The fort is named after Babak Khorramdin, an Iranian warlord who managed to resist Arab invaders until his death in 838 CE. Neẓām-al-Molk, pp. Afšīn reported his success (by pigeon post according to Masʿūdī’s Morūj, ed. Babak by Nafisi.djvu 3,249 × 4,931, 251 pages; 11.45 MB Babak Khorramdin on Russia USSR mint cover from 20.03.1990 URSS.jpg 626 × 439; 109 KB Babək Xaçmaz.jpg 1,536 × 2,048; 361 KB The fort is named after Babak Khorramdin, an Iranian warlord who managed to resist Arab invaders until his death in 838 CE. ʿAbd-al-Malek Zayyāt about this elephant are quoted by Ṭabarī (see Sadighi, p. 266 n. 2). Faṣīḥ Ḵᵛāfī, Mojmal-e faṣīḥī, ed. Published: November 18, 2010 The city's economy depends greatly in its agricultural production. 231-56. 95a-b, 202b, 70a. His moves against Bābak had failed, but his concern with the problem is revealed in his testamentary advice to his successor al-Moʿtaṣem in which al-Maʾmūn exhorts him not to spare any effort or resources to crush Bābak’s revolt (Ṭabarī, III, p. 1138). 299-306. His stronghold Baḏḏ was situated in impenetrable mountains with intricate defiles and passes, where, according to Baḷʿamī (see Kāmbaḵš Fard, Barrasīhā-ye tārīḵī 1/4, Dey, 1345 Š./November-December, 1966-67, pp. Often Bābak used his positional advantage to surprise the enemy and kill large numbers of them. Aḥmad Kasrawī’s researches had already pointed to the site near Kalībar (Šahrīārān-e gomnām, 2nd ed., Tehran, 1335 Š./1956, p. 149). .,” Muslim World 38, 1948, pp. 268-72). On this date in 838, Babak Khorramdin was chopped to pieces for his 20-year rebellion against the Abbasid Caliphate. C. Huart, “Bābak,” in EI1 I. W. Madelung, “Khurramiyya,” in EI2 V. D. Margoliouth, “Khurramiyya,” in EI1 II. 256-62. The name Babak (also Papak) was the name of the founder of the Sassanian dynasty c 200 CE. His widow then earned her living as a wet-nurse for other people’s infants, while Bābak worked as a cowherd until he was twelve years old. Banu, Wife of Babak (d. c. 838 CE) Banu was the wife of the hero and freedom fighter Babak Khorramdin (d. 838 CE) who fought against the occupying forces of the Abbasid Caliphate. 114-18; see Sadighi, p. 234). The mentions of his doings in Armenian chronicles have been assembled by Nafīsī (pp. Babak Khorramdin was one of the main Iranian revolutionary leaders of the Iranian Khorram-Dinān, which was a local freedom movement fighting the Abbasid Caliphate. Yūsofī, Abū Moslem, sardār-e Ḵorāsān, Tehran, 1345 Š./1966, pp. Babak Khorramdin the national hero of Iran who sacrificed his life for his country. Ṭabarī, The Reign of al-Muʿtaṣim, tr. 4-12; no. His father died from wounds suffered in a fight during a journey to the Sabalan district when Babak was in his teens and the responsibility of his two brothers and mother fell on his shoulders. WHO IS BABAK KHORRAMDIN? The king’s daughters 4. After the death of Javidan, Babak married Javidan's wife and became the Khorramis' leader, sometime in the year 816-17 during al-Ma'mun's reign. Afšīn camped at Maṭīra (or at Qāṭūl five parasangs from Sāmarrā), and it is related that first the qāżī Aḥmad b. Abī Doʾād, then al-Moʿtaṣem himself went to the camp secretly in their impatience for a glimpse of Bābak (Ṭabarī, III, pp. Ḡ.-H. Moṣāḥeb, Tehran, 1345 Š./1966, s.v. On the following day Bābak appeared before Jāvīdān’s assembled warriors and followers. January 4th, 2008 Headsman. Babak Khorramdin (c 795/798-838) was born to a Zoroastrian family of Azerbaijan close to the city of Artavilla (modern Ardabil) in north-western Iran and the southwest Caspian region. BĀBAK ḴORRAMĪ (d. Ṣafar, 223/January, 838), leader of the Ḵorramdīnī or Ḵorramī uprising in Azerbaijan in the early 3rd/9th century which engaged the forces of the caliph for twenty years before it was crushed in 222/837. 353-54; Abu’l-Maʿālī, chap. ʿA. However, it was then renamed in honor of the medieval Persian revolutionary leader Babak Khorramdin who rebelled against the Abbasids. The legend says that Bābak bravely rinsed his face with the drained blood pouring out of his cuts, thus depriving the Caliph and the rest of the Abbasid army from seeing his pale face, a result of the heavy loss of blood. ... a fall of several thousands of meters would lead to certain death. Bābak’s aims, however, were clearly not shared by the Iranian princes and nobles like Afšīn (except Māzyār), being incompatible with their ambition to regain power and wealth (Zarrīnkūb, 1355, p. 232). Wāqed and Ṭabarī depict Bābak as low-born, but Bābak’s reply to his son’s letter after his escape, and the words of his brother ʿAbd-Allāh to Ebn Šarvīn Ṭabarī, the officer appointed to take him to Baghdad (Ṭabarī, III, pp. The death of this general prompted poetic laments such as a qaṣīda by Abū Tammām, two verses from which are quoted in Dīnavarī (p. 398). Ḏ. Ṣafā, “Bābak-e Ḵorramdīnī,” Majalla-ye arteš 8, 1328 Š./1949, no. One such intelligence report was that Bābak knew that al-Moʿtaṣem had sent Boḡā the Elder (a senior general) with a large sum of money for the pay and expenses of the troops and was planning a raid to seize this money. E. Marin, New Haven, 1951, index. F. Wüstenfeld, Göttingen, 1850, p. 198. Al-Maʾmūn at first paid scant attention to Bābak’s revolt, evidently because he was living in distant Khorasan and preoccupied with matters such as the designation of his successor, the actions of Fażl b. Sahl, and the backlash at Baghdad. M. J. Maškūr, Tabrīz, 1336 Š./1957, pp. An ongoing problem for al-Ma'mun was the uprising headed by Babak Khorramdin. ; ʿAwfī, pt. 43-59, 124-31. Afšīn entered the castle and had it demolished after it had been plundered (Ṭabarī, III, pp. Jāvīdān therefore asked the woman for permission to take her son away to manage his farms and properties, and offered to send her fifty dirhams a month from Bābak’s salary. Babak Khorramdin was born in the 8th century in Balal Abad region of Azerbaijan, close to the city of Ardebil. During Bābak's execution, the Caliph's henchmen first cut off his legs and hands in order to convey the most devastating message to his followers. He released the men and returned the women and children to those shown to be their husbands, fathers, or guardians. 158-60). According to some sources his head was later sent around for display in other cities and in Khorasan. 187-280 (sources pp. Captured at last — he had spurned a guarantee of safety with that timeless insurrectionary sentiment, “Better to live for just a single day as a ruler than to live for forty years as an abject slave” — he had his hands and legs struck off in the presence of the caliph. Then he set out with Bābak and Bābak’s brother and some Ḵorramī prisoners for al-Moʿtaṣem’s capital Sāmarrā. ʿAlī b. Ṣadaqa (Ṣadaqa b. Women, like men, were defined by social class and rank within that class. This allegation may have its root in the marriage of the two after Jāvīdān’s death (see Sadighi, p. 244). The suspicion probably gained credence because the three movements shared a common hostility to the ʿAbbasids and may have occasionally collaborated. The year of this great man’s death is January 17th. Other writers take ḵorram to be the adjective normally meaning “verdant” or “joyous” and interpret it as “permissive” or “libertine.” Ḵorramdīn appears to be a compound analogous to dorostdīn (orthodox) and Behdīn (“Zoroastrian”; see Sadighi, p. 195; Nafīsī, p. 21; Madelung, p. 63), and since joy was one of the forces governing the world in the Mazdakite religion (see Yarshater, pp. Principal Wife (mother of the king’s heir) 3. Bābak, however, took the precaution of sending his brother ʿAbd-Allāh to ʿĪsā b. Yūsof b. Eṣṭefānūs (Ṭabarī, III, pp. 8, pp. 147-48. 365-66), when one of Bābak’s hands had been cut off, he made his face red by smearing blood on it with his other hand, and when al-Moʿtaṣem asked why, he answered that it was because loss of blood causes pallor and he did not want anyone to suppose that he was pale with fear (Sadighi, pp. Babak Khorramdin was one of the main leaders of the Khorramdin Movement. The fort is named after Babak Khorramdin, an Iranian national hero, warlord and revolutionary leader who fought against Arab invaders until his death in 838 CE. (Optional) Enter email address if you would like feedback about your tag. Severe winter weather and heavy rain and snowfalls made operation against Baḏḏ impossible in winter. 32-33). Bābak’s brother ʿAbd-Allāh was sent to Baghdad, where he was similarly executed and gibbeted by Esḥāq b. Ebrāhīm Moṣʿabī. Many of the old writers, particularly those of Sunnite persuasion, assert that Ḵorramīs influenced and infiltrated the Qarmaṭī and Esmāʿīlī movements, and some modern scholars take the same view while others are more cautious (Madelung, p. 65; B. Lewis, The Origins of Ismailism, Cambridge, 1940, pp. Abū Saʿīd Moḥammad set about these tasks. The whole length of the street to the Bāb al-ʿĀmma was lined on both sides with cavalrymen and foot soldiers and huge numbers of people. 1, chap. 5). Tanūḵī, Nešwār al-moḥāżara wa aḵbār al-moḏākara, ed. Bayhaqī (2nd ed., pp. Bābak’s boldness, shrewdness, and efficiency in the military leadership of the long struggle, and the trust placed in him by his supporters are certainly remarkable (on his personality and ideas, see Sadighi, pp. These days, Babak Castle can be reached by several hours of stiff climbing from the village below. Required fields are marked *, © Copyright 2020 ExecutedToday.com :: All Rights Reserved :: A WordPress joint Theme originally by WarAxe at Negative99, modified by Brian at Logjamming Contact the Headsman. Entry Filed under: Azerbaijan,Caliphate,Capital Punishment,Death Penalty,Disfavored Minorities,Dismembered,Early Middle Ages,Execution,Famous,God,Gruesome Methods,History,Iran,Martyrs,Persia,Power,Racial and Ethnic Minorities,Revolutionaries,Summary Executions, Tags: 838, abassids, azeri, babak khorramdin, Caliphate, islam, january 4, khurramites, nationalism, zoroastrian, zoroastrianism, Your email address will not be published. Descendants of his followers evidently continued to live at Baḏḏ, as Abū Dolaf b. Mesʿar b. Mohalhel saw them there in the mid-4th/10th century. He was born in around 795 near the modern-day Ardabil in the Azerbaijan province of Northern Iran. Whenever he needed money or supplies, he informed al-Moʿtaṣem by means of swift couriers and soon got what he wanted. Babak was eventually betrayed, handed over to the Abbasid Caliph, al-Mu’tasim, and tortured to death. 405-06; Sīāsat-nāma, p. 319; Mojmal, pp. One of those to whom he wrote was Bābak (or probably Jāvīdān), who was greatly encouraged thereby (Ebn Qotayba, p. 198; Yaʿqūbī, II, p. 563; Sadighi, p. 238 n. 3). The epithet Khorrami or Khorramdin given to Babak in the sources denotes membership of this sect. Access is challenging and involves an arduous uphill walk that takes one to two hours. 96-97). Babak’s relationship with censorship began before he was born. The reports state that Babak called Persians to arms, seized castles and strong points, thereby barring roads to his enemies. 267-68). ©2020 Encyclopædia Iranica Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Various figures, said to have been obtained from an executioner or executioners whom Bābak had employed, are given for those whose death he ordered in the course of his long revolt; the figure of 255,000 or more in most of the sources (Ṭabarī, III, p. 1233; Maqdesī, VI, p. 114; Sadighi, p. 271) is obviously an exaggeration, no doubt intended to impute cruelty and bloodthirstiness to Bābak. 449-51). Babak Khorramdin was one of the main leaders of the Khorramdin Movement. Also mentioned are various precautions which Afšīn took at this time, such as trench-digging, patrolling, hiring local highlanders as spies, and sending detachments to strategic points. Details of numerous engagements between Bābak’s men and Afšīn’s troops before the fall of Baḏḏ are given by Ṭabarī and Ebn al-Aṯīr (s.a. 220/835-222/837) and recapitulated by Nafīsī (pp. Bābak’s brother ʿAbd-Allāh, according to Ṭabarī, met his death with similar calm assurance (Ṭabarī, III, p. 1231). Ebn Meskawayh, Tajāreb I, pp. Al-Maʾmūn died on the campaign in 218/833. Bābak himself got away to the Mūqān plain and thence to Baḏḏ (Ṭabarī, III, pp. Bābak’s defeat hit the Ḵorramīs hard but did not destroy them. 359, 367-68). 268.) In his conversation with Sahl b. Sonbāṭ about the need to send away his brother ʿAbd-Allāh, he said, according to Ṭabarī, “It is not right that my brother and I should stay in one place. 1003-04; and Nafīsī, p. 21). Bābak) appear to derive from rumors that Afšīn was already in secret contact with anti-ʿAbbasid leaders such as Bābak and the ruler of Ṭabarestān, Māzyār b. Qāren, and perhaps also with the Byzantine emperor Theophilus. G. Flügel, “Bābak, seine Abstammung und erstes Auftreten,” ZDMG 23, 1869, pp. On or before that date, according to some sources, Ḥātem b. Harṯama, the governor of Armenia, learned that his father Harṯama b. Aʿyan had, despite loyal service to al-Maʾmūn, been flogged and imprisoned on the caliph’s order and been killed in prison at the behest of the minister Fażl b. Sahl (Ṭabarī, II, p. 1026). A later incident also boded ill for Bābak. His father’s name is variously given as Merdas/Merdās (Samʿānī, ed. 5). In Jomādā I, 219/May, 834 many Ḵorramī prisoners were brought by Esḥāq b. Ebrāhīm to Baghdad (Ṭabarī, III, p. 1166; Ebn al-Aṯīr, VI, p. 444). 2-6; Barrasīhā-ye tārīḵī 1/4, pp. The king’s sisters 5. 1233-34; Masʿūdī, Tanbīh, pp. But he is not an unproblematic character for contemporary Iran, and not so much because of the anti-Islamic character of his revolt. 230-31; cf. According to Masʿūdī (Morūj, ed. 265, 275; Amoretti, p. 509). M. Azizi, La domination arabe et l’épanouissement du sentiment national en Iran, Paris, 1938. The poet ʿAṭṭār, however, attributes this gesture to the crucified mystic Ḥosayn b. Manṣūr Ḥallāj (Manṭeq al-ṭayr, ed. Banu and Babak Khoramdin are considered as one of the most heroic freedom fighters of Persia who initiated the Khurramite movement. 233ff. Afšīn had already sent letters to the district promising a large reward for the capture of Bābak, and Sahl b. Sonbāṭ informed Afšīn of Bābak’s presence. Sometime after Bābak’s entry into Jāvīdān’s service, the rival chieftain Abū ʿEmrān sallied forth from his mountain stronghold against Jāvīdān and was defeated and killed, but Jāvīdān died three days after the battle from a wound. Bābak, together with some members of his family and a few of his warriors, slipped away by mountain tracks, heading for Armenia. 795, according to some other sources 798 — d. 7th January 838) was a Persian freedom fighter and one of the leaders of the Khorram-Dinan (Persian, "Those of the joyous religion"), which was a local freedom movement fighting the Abbasid Caliphate. They repeatedly captured supplies which Afšīn had ordered from Marāḡa and Šervān. Then al-Moʿtaṣem ordered the executioner to proceed. Al-Maʾmūn then entrusted the governorship of Jebāl and conduct of operations against the Ḵorramīs to Ṭāher b. Ebrāhīm. Aḥmad b. Jonayd was taken prisoner by Bābak while Zorayq failed to prosecute the war, and al-Maʾmūn then put Ebrāhīm b. Layṯ b. Fażl in charge. The woman told Bābak of her husband’s death and added that she was going to announce it to the community the next day, when she would also claim Bābak as Jāvīdān’s successor, who would restore the religion of Mazdak and lead the community to triumph and prosperity. They arrived on Thursday, or Wednesday night, 3 Ṣafar 223/4 January 838. After twenty-two years of persecution, Babak Khorramdin was tortured and executed by the betrayal of one of his friends, Afshin, by the ruler. Baḏḏ fell on 9 Ramażān 222/15 August 837. Babək kinosutarixi Azərbaycan filmi Azərbaycan dilində 1979-cu il How to reach the Babak Fort? 366-67); in 321/933 and again in 360/970 in the reigns of the Buyid amirs ʿEmād-al-Dawla and ʿAżod-al-Dawla and as late as the mid-6th/12th century (Margoliouth and Amedroz, Eclipse II, p. 299; Samʿānī, s.v. Iranian Azarbaijanis gather at Babak Castle during the first weekend in July for the annual commemoration of Babak Khorramdin. , 1850, p. 300 ; see also Sadighi, pp first in! To subdue Bābak, fathers, or Wednesday night, 3 Ṣafar 223/4 January 838 Nafīsī ( pp Yūsof! 319 ; Mojmal, pp ; Mojmal, pp, 5th ed., Tehran 1345. 381 ; Yāqūt, I, pp to him, he did not them! Arabe et l ’ épanouissement du sentiment national en Iran, Wiesbaden, 1952, pp frustrated Afšīn s. Side with her husband Babak against the caliphal generals and expeditionary forces to.! 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