The Molossus of Epirus is thought to have existed since before 400 BC and was a well-known dog breed within Ancient Greece, as well as Ancient Rome. Most scholars agree that the Molossus originated with the Molossis people in the mountainous regions of north west Ancient Greece and southern Albania. Following the war, 150,000 Molossians and other Epirotes were enslaved and transported to the Roman Republic, overwhelmingly in Italy itself. (Paus. [28] Though the region witnessed widescale destruction the Greek language in Epirus showed remarkable vitality in the following centuries both in the cities as well as outside them. Moreover, Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great, was a member of this celebrated sovereign house. Molossus. The later being a well established religious sanctuary of Zeus since at least the Geometric Age (c. 1100-800 B.C). Virgil tells us that in ancient Greece the heavier Molossian dogs were often used by the Greeks and Romans for hunting (canis venaticus) and to watch over the house and livestock (canis pastoralis). The most famous Molossian ruler was Pyrrhus of Epirus, considered one of the greatest generals of antiquity. The various theories place it chronologically from a post-Odyssey framework to the 5th century BC. The Molossians sided against Rome in the Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC) and were defeated. … Gr. Howard Hayes Scullard had proposed the most recognized theory in the past. Molossus inherited the kingdom of Epirus after the death of Helenus, son of Priam and Hecuba of Troy, who had married his erstwhile sister-in-law Andromache after Neoptolemus' death. [44] Aristotle also considered the region around Dodona the region where the Hellenes originated. [1][2] He was the eponymous founder of the Molossians,[2][3] an ancient Greek tribe that inhabited the region of Epirus located in northwestern Greece. In the case of the Molossian ruling class, the philosopher who has been credited with much of the mythological construction of their origins is Proxenus of Atarneus (early 4th century BC). Neoptolemus was… Achilles. The Molossians were renowned for their vicious hounds, which were used by Molossian shepherds of Epirus[5] in the mountains of northwestern Greece to guard their flocks. Some scholars contend that the Molossus was a dog used by the Ancient Illyria [3] also for fighting. Cf. [18][19][20] Even with the aid of 2,000 Greek hoplites and 500 suits of Greek armour, the Illyrians were defeated by the Spartans (led by Agesilaus) but not before ravaging the region and killing 15,000 Molossians. [13][14], The Molossian expansion in Epirus possibly began in the early 6th century B.C.. As such they became a leading power in the region already from the time of historian Hecataeus (c. 550-476 B.C.). They could have reached their destination sooner, but the old man died along the way and they had to honor him with proper funeral rites. A New Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, Mythology and Geography. The Myrmidons were the Achaeans who lived in Phthia and the kingdom of Thessaly.. Achilles came from Phthia, and his father Peleus was king of the Myrmidons during, and still after, the Trojan War.. Peleus captures Thetis as his bride. [29], There is today an overall consensus that the Molossians were among the Greek-speaking population of Epirus, which spoke the North-West Doric dialect of Ancient Greek, akin to that of Aetolia, Phocis, and certain other regions,[30][31] this is also attested by the available epigraphic evidence in Epirus. In another Illyrian attack in 360 BC, the Molossian king Arymbas (or Arybbas) evacuated his non-combatant population to Aetolia and let the Illyrians loot freely. According to Strabo, the Molossians, along with the Chaonians and Thesprotians, were the most famous among the fourteen tribes of Epirus, who once ruled over the whole region. [57] When the ruling class of the Molossians began to construct such a genealogy is unclear. Meyer The Inscriptions of Dodona and a New History of Molossia", "The Inscriptions of Dodona and a New History of Molossia. MOLOSSUS A son of Pyrrhus, or Neoptolemus, and Andromache, from whom the country of Molossia was believed to have derived its name. [15] The Epirotes were traditionally in friendly terms with the Corinthians, however in 5th century B.C. [25] In historiography, the decision of the senate has been the subject of much debate, as the two main anti-Roman powers of the time in that region, the Macedonians and the Illyrians, suffered few consequences in contrast to the Molossians in terms of punishment. atitikmenys: lot. The poet Grattius, a contemporary of Ovid, writes "...when serious work has come, … [gr]gr. Aristotle stated that "Hellas" was located around Dodona and Achelous. Helenus the Fighter Helenus was more than just a seer though, for he was the cleverest of all Trojans, and also a wise counsel, and someone who Hector trusted to guide him as the Trojan War developed. Molossus inherited the kingdom of Epirus after the death of Helenus, son of Priam and Hecuba of Troy, who had married his erstwhile sister-in-law Andromache after Neoptolemus's death. [59] These genealogical claims from the Molossian ruling dynasty were part of a planned effort by them in order to use elements of Greek culture for their own political ends in order to dominate in regional power struggles. After some successes on the battlefield, he was defeated by a coalition of Italic tribes at the Battle of Pandosia in 331 BC. [20][23], In 330 BC, upon Alexander the Molossian's death, the term "Epirus" appears as a single political unit in the ancient Greek records for the first time, under the leadership of the Molossian dynasty. The Molossus of Epirus is an ancient breed of large dogs developed for guarding livestock against carnivores like brown bears, European jackals, and wolves in the Epirus region and the surrounding mountains. He was sometimes called by Pyrrhus. Their supreme deity was Zeus and the Oracle of Dodona found in the land of the Molossians attracted pilgrims from all over the Greek world. This redirect is within the scope of WikiProject Classical Greece and Rome, a group of contributors interested in Wikipedia's articles on classics. It took over nearly two months for the large party make their way through the mountainous terrain between Thrace and Epirus on foot. On the death of Arybbas, Alexander the Molossian, uncle of Alexander the Great of Macedon, succeeded to the throne with the title King of Epirus.[22]. [26] This interpretation is based on the negative assessment of Charops, already in ancient sources, as Polybius calls him "the most savage and degenerate of all men". If you would like to join the WikiProject or learn how to contribute, please see our project page. By: Ailsa. [45], The first inscriptions come from Corinthian colonies or dedications to Dodona and are not representative of sites in Epirus, although some of the early Dodona tablets may be related to Epirus. Izvori. Among those settlements the most excavated were located in Liatovouni (near Konitsa) established in the 13th-12th century B.C and Vitsa (from 9th century B.C). ?, prop., Molossian, belonging to the Molossians, a people in the belonging to the Molossians, a people in the [8] A far more reliable source on the views of the Greeks is the list of sacred envoys (Ancient Greek: θεαρόδοκοι) in Epidaurus, which includes the Epirotes. In the following years, slave-hunting became a central feature of Roman campaigns. Such views were based on subjective ancient testimonies and are not supported by the earliest epigraphic evidence. giant velvety free tailed bat; Kerr’s mastiff bat; Pallas’ mastiff bat vok. According to some historians, their first king was Phaethon, one of those who came into Epirus with Pelasgus. ?, prop., Molossian, belonging to the Molossians, a people in the eastern part of … 2013. Pyrrhus was a second cousin of Alexander the Great. [40][8] As such, according to Tom Winnifrith (1983) the hellenization process among Epirotes and Molossians continued and after the Roman conquest. It took over nearly two months for the large party make their way through the mountainous terrain between Thrace and Epirus on foot. [27] The plague of 174 BC caused a great reduction of available labor in Italy, which was supplied almost exclusively by slave labor. Following the sack of Troy, Neoptolemus and his armies settled in Epirus where they joined with the local population. Once a year the king of the Molossians, having sacrificed to Zeus Areios as god of war, made a formal exchange of oaths with the Molossian tribes, swearing to rule in accordance to the laws. It is variously mentioned as a premier hunting dog, an aggressive guard dog and as a guardian and herder of cattle and sheep by many of the greatest writers in Greek and Latin literature over a period of 800 years. After the Trojan War, Andromache, the wife of Hector, becomes the concubine of the Neoptolemus. The state officials now were: the king, the prostates, the secretary (grammateus) and a board of fifteen synarchontes (Greek: συνάρχοντες), literally meaning "co-rulers", instead of the earlier ten damiourgoi. On their northern frontier, they neighbored the Chaonians and on their southern frontier neighbored the kingdom of the Thesprotians. After Akhilles died, Neoptolemus took his place and was shown in the Aeneid as one of the Greeks who infiltrated Troy in the wooden horse. [4] Then, among writers of the classical era these stories were not doubted . 1) nach Montfort eine Gattung der Kopffüßler aus der Familie der Schiffsboote; sie unterscheiden sich durch etwas gebogene, kleinklammerige, dünne Schalen; Arten: Nautilus, Siphunculus u. Orthoceratites gracilis; 2) eine Art Fledermaus, s.d. [4], The Molossians were also renowned for their vicious hounds, which were used by shepherds to guard their flocks. [7] According to Johannes Engels (2010) in the Oxford Companion to Macedonia, genealogical links through the Trojan cycle and other myths strongly connected Epirus with the rest of Greece, precluding serious debate about the Greekness of the Epirotes, including the Molossians.[8]. The stratagem worked, and the Molossians fell upon the Illyrians, who were encumbered with booty, and defeated them. They were mainly used as livestock guardians; essential farmyard workers who protected the flocks of sheep and cattle from deadly predators, such as wolves and bears. Andromache Chapter 3: Molossus, a greek mythology fanfic | FanFiction. [5] Their senators were called Peligones (Πελιγόνες), similar to Macedonian Peliganes (Πελιγᾶνες). (Her son Molossus was claimed as an ancestor by the kings of Molossia in historical times—until the demise of the monarchy in the 3rd century bce.) [11] A large Molossian cemetery, was also found at Koutsokrano, Pogoni. She was to become the mother of Alexander the Great. [62] A later inscription, dating probably within the reign of Neoptolemus (shortly before c. 360 B.C. He connected the measures taken by the Romans to Charops of Epirus, member of a rival tribe the Chaonians - a Roman ally - who in order to gain command of the region, pushed for the extermination of the Molossians. Molossus Mo*los"sus, n. [L., fr. [41] According to Johannes Engles (2010), the language the Epirotes spoke was regarded as a primitive Northwestern Greek dialect, but there was no question that it was Greek, and the way of life in Epirus was more archaic than that in the Corinthian and Corcyrean colonies on the coast, but there was never a discussion about their Greekness. molossus [mә'lɔsәs] n. (古典韻律學中的)3個長音節構成的音步. Amerika, Antilų salos ir P. Amerika. C)… English-Chinese dictionary. The Molossus (Greek: Μολοσσὸς) was a fearless and ferocious breed named after the grandson of Achilles, Molossus, who founded the Molossians, an ancient Greek tribe in Epirus, located in what are now parts of northwest Greece, Macedonia, Albania, and Montenegro. Μολοσσός. Molossus may refer to: Molossus, genus of bats; Molossus (dog), extinct breed of dog; Molossus of Epirus, a Greek dog breed; Molossus (poetry), type of metrical foot; Molossus (Μολοσσός), in Greek mythology, the son of Neoptolemus and Andromache and ancestor of the Molossians; Molossus, Athenian commander on Euboea ~ 350 BC [1] [2] He was the eponymous founder of the Molossians , [2] [3] an ancient Greek tribe that inhabited the region of Epirus located in northwestern Greece . According to Plutarch, Pyrrhus was the son of Aeacides of Epirus and a Greek woman from Thessaly named Phthia, the daughter of a war hero in the Lamian War. [50], Historian Elizabeth Meyer, in 2013 suggested a new chronology for some inscriptions in Dodona (from early 4th century to one century later), if accurate this would have larger implications about local history,[51][52][53] but not all historians will be convinced by the interpretations suggested in this account and further investigation is needed. According to Plutarch, Deucalion and Pyrrha, having set up the worship of Zeus at Dodona, settled there among the Molossians. [35][36], Earlier historians on the basis of largely linguistic material argued that they were of Greek origin, while other scholars of equal academic weight but at an earlier era (Nilsson (1909 and 1951), Meyer (1878)) in their fields argued in favor of an Illyrian origin. 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